Hey guys in this post we will discuss a quick overview of Object-Oriented Programming.
What is OOP’s?
Object-oriented programming system (OOP’s) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of “objects” that contain data and methods.
The primary purpose of object-oriented programming is to increase the flexibility and maintainability of programs.
Object-oriented programming brings together data and its behaviour (methods) in a single location (object) makes it easier to understand how a program works.
building blocks of OOP’s
Following are the main building blocks of OOP’s
Any entity that has a state and behaviour is known as an object. For example, a chair, pen, table, keyboard, bike etc. It can be physical or logical.
An Object can be defined as an instance of a class. An object contains an address and takes up some space in memory. Objects can communicate without knowing the details of each other’s data or code.
The collection of objects is called class. It is a logical entity. A class can also be defined as a blueprint from which you can create an individual object. Class doesn’t consume any space.
When one object acquires all the properties and behaviors of a parent object, it is known as inheritance. It provides code reusability. It is used to achieve runtime polymorphism.
If one task is performed in different ways, it is known as polymorphism. For example, to convince the customer differently, to draw something, for example, shape, triangle, rectangle, etc.
In java, we use method overloading and method overriding to achieve polymorphism.
Another example can be to speak something, for example, a cat speaks meow, dog barks woof, etc.
Hiding internal details and showing functionality is known as abstraction. For example, phone calls, we don’t know the internal processing.
In java, we use abstract class and interface to achieve abstraction.
Binding (or wrapping) code and data together into a single unit are known as encapsulation. For example, a capsule is wrapped with different medicines.
A java class is an example of encapsulation. Java bean is the fully encapsulated class because all the data members are private here.